Papillomavirus infection is widespread throughout the world. HPV infection occurs regardless of age and gender, but the course of the disease and its development has its own characteristics in men and women.
For the stronger sex, the papilloma virus can bring certain disturbances in sexual life and provoke the occurrence of related health problems.
The human papillomavirus has such a microscopic structure that it can enter the body through the smallest microcracks on the skin and mucous membranes.
In this regard, there are several possible HPV infections, these are:
- Sexual transmission. You can get an infection not only through ordinary intimate contact, but also through oral contact. In homosexual men, HPV enters through anal contact through cracks in the skin and in the rectum. Traumatization of the mucous membranes during sex increases the risk of infection.
- Household route of infection. The virus can be in a viable state for a long time in a humid environment, and therefore there is a high probability of its transmission in baths, saunas, through a personal towel. Cases of infection in beauty salons are described, where the rules for disinfecting manicure sets and other tools were neglected. Transmission of the virus through instruments in dental or surgical rooms is possible.
- From mother to baby during childbirth.
Men who frequently change sexual partners are most likely to become HPV-positive.
It is believed that the younger the girls, the more likely it is that she has papillomavirus in her body - most of the cases of detected infection occur at the age of up to 25 years. Virgins can also be infected with HPV, as oral and other types of sexual intercourse are often practiced before traditional sex.
Unfortunately, barrier contraception, that is, a condom, does not provide a 100% guarantee of preventing HPV infection. This is due to the fact that this microorganism, due to its minimal size, easily penetrates through the pores of the latex. Naturally, a condom reduces the likelihood of a possible infection, but does not completely eliminate it.
It should also be borne in mind that the microorganism is found in a certain amount in saliva and, therefore, can be transmitted through kisses.
The risk of possible HPV infection increases in men who have bad habits. The likelihood of infection increases with the weakening of the body's defenses, after prolonged treatment, while taking antibiotics.
The fact that he is a carrier of the papillomavirus, a man may not suspect until the activation of the vital activity of this microorganism occurs. The reason for this change is often the weakening of the functioning of the immune defense.
The latent carriage of the infection takes a period of two weeks to a year, in some cases this interval is significantly lengthened.
Activation of the virus leads to the fact that some of it accumulates in a certain place on the skin or on the mucous membranes. The accumulation and development of papillomavirus changes the functions of epithelial cells and this gives rise to a tumor-like process.
Papillomas can form on almost any part of our body, most often they become noticeable when they appear in the armpits, on the face, neck, and genitals. Sometimes the process of formation of papillomas is accompanied by itching and burning.
Papillomavirus formations on the body grow in the form of plaques, warts, filiform bumps on the legs. The greatest danger is genital warts, in men they are located on the penis, can grow around the anus or inside the urethra.
At first, these outgrowths most often look like small pimples, in advanced cases they can merge with each other, forming a growth resembling a cauliflower in shape.
By themselves, genital warts are unpleasant only because of a cosmetic defect. But if they are not removed and treated in general with a papillomatous infection, then there is a risk of degeneration of the altered epithelial cells into cancerous ones.
Sometimes, during sexual intercourse or careless movements, papillomas are injured, which leads to slight bleeding and soreness. With the strengthening of the immune system, self-healing often occurs, that is, papillomas disappear or they become smaller.
The consequences of infection with the papillomavirus for men are very unpleasant, and depend on the strain of this microorganism.
If the inside of the urethra is affected, there is a risk of rapid growth and spread of genital warts inside the urethra. This leads to its partial or complete blockage, which negatively affects the outflow of urine and affects the development of disorders in the functioning of the urinary organs.
The appearance of growths on the glans penis, around the anus and in the rectum increases the likelihood of a benign formation becoming malignant.
Rectal cancer is more often detected in men who practice non-traditional sexual intercourse. When engaging in oral sex, there is a risk of formation of papillomas in the throat, which is manifested by various uncomfortable sensations.
A man infected with HPV also poses a certain danger to women in his environment. For a wife or other sexual partner, such a man will be the most likely source of infection. There is a risk of infection and sisters, mothers, daughters when using one towel, bath accessories in the family.
Establishing the diagnosis begins with an examination of the external genital organs and the entire body of the patient.
The doctor must necessarily collect an anamnesis, that is, to clarify when the formations appeared on the body, with what the patient associates their growth, and to establish whether there are certain complaints.
To confirm the diagnosis, the patient must pass several tests, these are:
- A swab or scraping from the mucous layer inside the urethra.
- PCR test to determine the type of virus, its quantitative content. This analysis is carried out after taking a smear, prostate secretion or blood.
- Biopsy - a study of a tissue sample taken during the removal of genital warts or from the site of a change in the mucous layer.
- Ureteroscopy helps to visually examine changes in the urethra.
Men who have homosexual contacts are advised to examine swabs taken from the anal area.
Methods for the treatment of papillomavirus in men
The selection of methods for treating human papillomavirus in men depends on which strain of the virus is detected in the man.
If a pathogen with high oncogenic activity is detected, then an effective antiviral treatment is prescribed, and in the future it is necessary to constantly repeat the tests.
Papillomas and condylomas are removed from the skin and mucous membranes in several ways. This can be either a conventional scalpel cut or more modern methods - laser treatment, electrocoagulation, radio wave method.
After removal of papillomas, it is necessary to increase the body's resistance to infections, which will reduce the risk of infection with another type of HPV.
Prevention of human papillomavirus infection is intelligibility in sexual relations and, if possible, sexual contacts only with trusted partners. The methods of prevention include the observance of elementary rules in everyday life, this is the use of only your own towel and underwear, following a healthy lifestyle.
Infection can be prevented by vaccination. A special vaccine has been developed against HPV, it is given three times at a certain interval. Vaccination leads to the fact that the body develops immunity to certain strains of papillomavirus.